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Chivers, B. et al. 2014 Ultrasonic reverse stridulation in the spider-like katydid Arachnoscelis (Orthoptera: Listrosceledinae). Bioacoustics 23, 67-77

Montealegre-Z , F. et al. 2012 Convergent evolution between insect and mammalian audition. Science 338, 968-971

Gu, J.J. & Montealegre-Z, F. et al. 2012 Wing stridulation in a Jurassic katydid (Insecta, Orthoptera) produced low-pitched musical calls to attract females. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 109, 3868–3873

Bushcrickets can hear sounds that are beyond human hearing - these are high frequency ultrasounds. They use ultrasonic signals to communicate and find each other in lush rainforests. We show that their ears work similar to the human ear, therefore understanding its function is important. Bushcrickets have the smallest ears known from animals. Our displays and activities will engage visitors in both visual and auditory experiences of hearing in humans and bushcrickets. Visitors can enjoy recognizing bushcricket songs from Jurassic to living species, localising singing bushcrickets hidden in a rainforest, and hearing what an insect is actually hearing.

 
Bushcrickets have the smallest ears known in animals and use ultrasonic signals to communicate and find each other in the rainforests. Discover how similar their ears are to the human ear, and how they are improving our understanding of hearing systems.

Insects' ears are used for social communication and/or predator detection. These features need sensitivity to a wide range of frequencies including ultrasound. Humans can hear sound from 20Hz up to 20,000Hz; above this range sounds are considered ultrasonic. Ultrasonic communication has particularly evolved in bushcrickets. Bushcricket males produce songs by rubbing their forewings together to attract distant females. Their ears consist of two eardrums located on the forelegs, nevertheless these ears work similar to the human ear.

We aim to understand how female bushcrickets are able to locate the fading calls of their males and the mechanisms by which these exceptional ultrasonic ears convert sound into motion and then into neural impulses. In addition to helping us understand how hearing systems function, this research may help engineers to improve artificial ultrasound sensor systems used in many different fields, such as medicine, and influence the design of biologically-inspired microphones with remarkable sensitivity and broad frequency response.

Lead image: A new species, the Indigo bushcricket, in Pichincha, Ecuador.